There are 4 different page types; 'Standard' (regular page containing content), 'Shortcut' (redirecting within the website), 'Link to external URL' (redirecting to an external website) and 'Folder' (a system folder used to store elements like news articles).
Read more about the Standard page settings on 2.2 Page properties.
The 'Shortcut' page can be used to redirect the visitor, from the menu, to another page within the website. This function is used to avoid having the same content published on multiple pages. For example, say that you wish to have a contact page in a submenu, but you already have a contact page in the main menu, that contains all the information. Then you can create a shortcut page in the submenu and redirect it to the page in the main menu.
Besides the general page settings, this consists of two functions that need to be set, which you can find at the bottom of the 'General' tab. First you need to select what type of shortcut it should be (1). There is an option to redirect to a specific page (Selected page), redirect to the first available subpage or first subpage of a selected page (First subpage of selected/current page), randomize the selection of subpages of current or selected page (Random subpage of selected/current page) and finally for it to select the parent page of the current or selected page (Parent page of selected/current page). If you wish to select a page, use the search field (2) to type in the title of the page and the select from the options alternatively select from the page tree using the folder icon (4) or Page button (5). Delete selected page by using the trash can icon (3)(2.6.1)
This page type can be used to link to an external website. An example would be if you have a webshop on a separate installation/address, but still wish to have a section in your main menu called Webshop.
There are three specific functions, that need to be set.
At the bottom of the 'General' tab, you first need to select what type of protocol that should be used (1). This means what type of address it is; http:// (regular web address), https:// (secure web address), ftp:// (linking to a file transfer protocol), or mailto: (to link to an e-mail address). You can also set it to Auto, to have TYPO3 automatically set the protocol. The second option, for this tab, is to add the web address (2). Since the protocol is set separately, you must add the URL without the protocol, for example www.typo3manual.com. The link will not work otherwise, because the protocol will be used twice (2.6.2).
Finally you need to tell TYPO3 that the link should open in a new window. To do this, go to the tab 'Behaviour' and in the dropdown, select 'New window'. The code _blank will be added to the field (2.6.3).
Save and the external link is ready.
No specific settings needs to be set for this type of page.